Tooth - abnormal colors
Abnormal tooth color is any color other than white to yellowish-white.
Discolored teeth; Tooth discoloration; Tooth pigmentation; Tooth staining
Many things can cause teeth to become discolored. The change in color may affect the entire tooth, or it may appear as spots or lines in the tooth enamel. Enamel is the hard outer layer of the tooth. The discoloration can be either temporary or permanent. It may also appear on many teeth or only one area.
Your genes affect your tooth color. Other things that can affect tooth color include:
Inherited diseases may affect the thickness of enamel or the calcium or protein content of the enamel. This can cause color changes. Metabolic diseases may cause changes in tooth color and shape.
Drugs and medicines taken by a mother during pregnancy or by a child during the time of tooth development can cause changes in the color and hardness of the enamel.
Some things that can cause teeth to become discolored are:
Good oral hygiene will help if teeth are stained from a food or fluid, or if they are discolored due to poor cleaning.
Talk to your dentist about abnormal tooth color. However, if the color seems to be related to a medical condition, you should talk to your regular health care provider as well.
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Call your provider if:
What to Expect at Your Office Visit
Your dentist will examine your teeth and ask about your symptoms. Questions may involve:
Diet-related discoloration and discoloration that is only on the surface may be eliminated with proper oral hygiene or teeth-whitening systems. More severe discoloration may need to be removed using fillings, veneers, or crowns.
Testing may not be necessary in many cases. However, if your provider suspects the discoloration may be related to a medical condition, testing may be needed to confirm the diagnosis.
Dental x-rays may be taken.
Neville BW, Damm DD, Allen CM, Chi AC. Abnormalities of teeth. In: Neville BW, Damm DD, Allen CM, Chi AC, eds. Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology. 4th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016:chap 2.
Tinanoff N. Development and developmental anomalies of the teeth. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 307.
Review Date: 2/5/2018
Reviewed By: Ilona Fotek, DMD, MS, Dental Healing Arts, Jupiter, FL. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
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