A kidney biopsy is the removal of a small piece of kidney tissue for examination.
Renal biopsy; Biopsy - kidney
How the Test is Performed
A kidney biopsy is done in the hospital. The two most common ways to do a kidney biopsy are percutaneous and open. These are described below.
Percutaneous means through the skin. Most kidney biopsies are done this way. The procedure is usually done in the following way:
In some cases, your doctor may recommend a surgical biopsy. This method is used when a larger piece of tissue is needed.
After percutaneous or open biopsy, you will likely stay in the hospital for at least 12 hours. You will receive pain medicines and fluids by mouth or through a vein (IV). Your urine will be checked for heavy bleeding. A small amount of bleeding is normal after a biopsy.
Follow instructions about caring for yourself after the biopsy. This may include not lifting anything heavier than 10 pounds (4.5 kilograms) for 2 weeks after the biopsy.
How to Prepare for the Test
Tell your health care provider:
How the Test will Feel
Numbing medicine is used, so the pain during the procedure is often slight. The numbing medicine may burn or sting when first injected.
After the procedure, the area may feel tender or sore for a few days.
You may see bright, red blood in the urine during the first 24 hours after the test. If the bleeding lasts longer, tell your provider.
Why the Test is Performed
Your doctor may order a kidney biopsy if you have:
A normal result is when the kidney tissue shows normal structure.
What Abnormal Results Mean
An abnormal result means there are changes in the kidney tissue. This may be due to:
Salama AD, Cook HT. The renal biopsy. In: Yu ASL, Chertow GM, Luyckx VA, Marsden PA, Karl S, Philip AM, Taal MW, eds. Brenner and Rector's The Kidney. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 26.
Topham PS, Chen Y. Renal biopsy. In: Feehally J, Floege J, Tonelli M, Johnson RJ, eds. Comprehensive Clinical Nephrology. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2019:chap 6.
Review Date: 6/30/2019
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