Prothrombin time (PT)
Prothrombin time (PT) is a blood test that measures the time it takes for the liquid portion (plasma) of your blood to clot.
A related blood test is partial thromboplastin time (PTT).
PT; Pro-time; Anticoagulant-prothrombin time; Clotting time: protime; INR; International normalized ratio
How the Test is Performed
A blood sample is needed. If you are taking blood-thinning medicines, you will be watched for signs of bleeding.
How to Prepare for the Test
Certain medicines can change blood test results.
Also tell your provider if you're taking any herbal remedies.
How the Test will Feel
When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel moderate pain. Others feel only a prick or stinging. Afterward, there may be some throbbing or slight bruising. This soon goes away.
Why the Test is Performed
The most common reason to perform this test is to monitor your levels when you are taking a blood-thinning medicine called warfarin. You are likely taking this medicine to prevent blood clots.
Your provider will check your PT regularly.
You may also need this test to:
PT is measured in seconds. Most of the time, results are given as what is called INR (international normalized ratio).
If you are not taking blood thinning medicines, such as warfarin, the normal range for your PT results is:
If you are taking warfarin to prevent blood clots, your provider will most likely choose to keep your INR between 2.0 and 3.0.
Ask your provider what result is right for you.
Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or test different samples. Talk to your provider about the meaning of your specific test results.
What Abnormal Results Mean
If you are not taking blood thinning medicines, such as warfarin, an INR result above 1.1 means your blood is clotting more slowly than normal. This may be due to:
If you are taking warfarin to prevent clots, your provider will most likely choose to keep your INR between 2.0 and 3.0:
A PT result that is too high or too low in someone who is taking warfarin (Coumadin) may be due to:
Your provider will teach you about taking warfarin (Coumadin) the proper way.
There is little risk involved with having your blood taken. Veins and arteries vary in size from one person to another, and from one side of the body to the other. Obtaining a blood sample from some people may be more difficult than from others.
Other risks associated with having blood drawn are slight, but may include:
This test is often done on people who may have bleeding problems. Their risk of bleeding is slightly higher than for people without bleeding problems.
Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Prothrombin time (PT) and international normalized ratio (INR) - blood. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures. 6th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:930-935.
Ortel TL. Antithrombotic therapy. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 23rd ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:chap 42.
Review Date: 1/29/2019
Reviewed By: Todd Gersten, MD, Hematology/Oncology, Florida Cancer Specialists & Research Institute, Wellington, FL. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
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