Chronic cholecystitis is swelling and irritation of the gallbladder that continues over time.
The gallbladder is a sac located under the liver. It stores bile that is made in the liver.
Bile helps with the digestion of fats in the small intestine.
Cholecystitis - chronic
Most of the time, chronic cholecystitis is caused by repeated attacks of acute (sudden) cholecystitis. Most of these attacks are caused by gallstones in the gallbladder.
These attacks cause the walls of the gallbladder to thicken. The gallbladder begins to shrink. Over time, the gallbladder is less able to concentrate, store, and release bile.
The disease occurs more often in women than in men. It is more common after age 40. Birth control pills and pregnancy are factors that increase the risk for gallstones.
Acute cholecystitis is a painful condition that leads to chronic cholecystitis. It is not clear whether chronic cholecystitis causes any symptoms.
Symptoms of acute cholecystitis can include:
Exams and Tests
Your health care provider may order the following blood tests:
Tests that reveal gallstones or inflammation in the gallbladder include:
Surgery is the most common treatment. Surgery to remove the gallbladder is called cholecystectomy.
If you are too ill to have surgery because of other diseases or conditions, the gallstones may be dissolved with medicine you take by mouth. However, this may take 2 years or longer to work. The stones may return after treatment.
Cholecystectomy is a common procedure with a low risk.
Complications may include:
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Call your provider if you develop symptoms of cholecystitis.
The condition is not always preventable. Eating less fatty foods may relieve symptoms in people. However, the benefit of a low-fat diet has not been proven.
Quigley BC, Adsay NV. Diseases of the gallbladder. In: Burt AD, Ferrell LD, Hubscher SG, eds. MacSween's Pathology of the Liver. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 10.
Theise ND. Liver and gallbladder. In: Kumar V, Abbas AK, Aster JC, eds. Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 18.
Wang DQH, Afdhal NH. Gallstone disease. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 65.
Review Date: 10/14/2019
Reviewed By: Michael M. Phillips, MD, Clinical Professor of Medicine, The George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, DC. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
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