Endometrium is the lining of the inside of the womb (uterus). Overgrowth of this lining can create polyps. Polyps are fingerlike growths that attach to the wall of the uterus. They can be as small as a sesame seed or larger than a golf ball. There may be just one or many polyps.
Uterine polyps; Uterine bleeding - polyps; Vaginal bleeding - polyps
The exact cause of endometrial polyps in women is not known. They tend to grow when there is more of the hormone estrogen in the body.
Most endometrial polyps are not cancerous. Very few can be cancerous or precancerous. The chance of cancer is higher if you are postmenopausal, on Tamoxifen, or have heavy or irregular periods.
Other factors that may increase the risk for endometrial polyps are:
Endometrial polyps are common in women between 20 to 40 years of age.
You may not have any symptoms of endometrial polyps. If you do have symptoms, they may include:
Exams and Tests
Your health care provider may perform these tests to find out if you have endometrial polyps:
Many polyps should be removed because of the small risk for cancer.
Endometrial polyps are most often removed by a procedure called hysteroscopy. Sometimes, a D and C (Dilation and Curettage) can be done to biopsy the endometrium and remove the polyp. This is less commonly used.
Postmenopausal women who have polyps that are not causing symptoms may also consider watchful waiting. However, the polyp should be removed if it is causing vaginal bleeding.
In rare cases, polyps can return after treatment.
Endometrial polyps may make it hard to get or stay pregnant.
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Call your provider if you have:
You cannot prevent endometrial polyps.
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Dolan MS, Hill C, Valea FA. Benign gynecologic lesions: vulva, vagina, cervix, uterus, oviduct, ovary, ultrasound imaging of pelvic structures. In: Lobo RA, Gershenson DM, Lentz GM, Valea FA, eds. Comprehensive Gynecology. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 18.
Goljan EF. Female reproductive disorders and breast disorders. In: Goljan EF, ed. Rapid Review Pathology. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 22.
Khan Z, Stewart EA. Benign uterine diseases. In: Strauss JF, Barbieri RL, eds. Yen & Jaffe's Reproductive Endocrinology. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 27.
Review Date: 10/4/2016
Reviewed By: John D. Jacobson, MD, Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda Center for Fertility, Loma Linda, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
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