Hemorrhoids are swollen veins around the anus. They may be inside the anus (internal hemorrhoids) or outside the anus (external hemorrhoids).
Often hemorrhoids do not cause problems. But if hemorrhoids bleed a lot, cause pain, or become swollen, hard, and painful, surgery can remove them.
Hemorrhoid surgery can be done in your health care provider's office or in the hospital operating room. In most cases, you can go home the same day. The type of surgery you have depends on your symptoms and the location and size of the hemorrhoid.
Before the surgery, your doctor will numb the area so you can stay awake, but not feel anything. For some types of surgery, you may be given general anesthesia. This means you will be given medicine in your vein that puts you to sleep and keeps you pain-free during surgery.
Hemorrhoid surgery may involve:
Why the Procedure is Performed
Often you can manage small hemorrhoids by:
When these measures do not work and you are having bleeding and pain, your doctor may recommend hemorrhoid surgery.
Risks for anesthesia and surgery in general are:
Risks for this type of surgery include:
Before the Procedure
Be sure to tell your provider:
During the days before the surgery:
On the day of your surgery:
After the Procedure
You will usually go home the same day after your surgery. Be sure you arrange to have someone drive you home. You may have a lot of pain after surgery as the area tightens and relaxes. You may be given medicines to relieve pain.
Follow instructions on how to care for yourself at home.
Most people do very well after hemorrhoid surgery. You should recover fully in a few weeks, depending on how involved the surgery was.
You will need to continue with diet and lifestyle changes to help prevent the hemorrhoids from coming back.
Blumetti J, Cintron JR. The management of hemorrhoids. In: Cameron JL, Cameron AM, eds. Current Surgical Therapy. 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:271-277.
Merchea A, Larson DW. Anus. In: Townsend CM, Beauchamp RD, Evers BM, Mattox KL, eds. Sabiston Textbook of Surgery: The Biological Basis of Modern Surgical Practice. 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 52.
Review Date: 5/15/2017
Reviewed By: Debra G. Wechter, MD, FACS, general surgery practice specializing in breast cancer, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
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