Carbohydrates are one of the main nutrients in our diet. They help provide energy for our body. There are three main types of carbohydrates found in foods: sugars, starches, and fiber.
People with diabetes often need to count the amount of carbohydrates they eat.
Starches; Simple sugars; Sugars; Complex carbohydrates; Diet - carbohydrates; Simple carbohydrates
Your body needs all three forms of carbohydrates to function properly.
Sugars and starches are broken down by the body into glucose (blood sugar) to be used as energy.
Fiber is the part of food that is not broken down by the body. Fiber helps you to feel full and can help you stay at a healthy weight.
Many different types of foods contain one or more type of carbohydrate.
Sugar occurs naturally in these nutrient-rich foods:
Some foods have added sugar. Many packaged and refined foods contain added sugar. These include:
Refined foods with added sugar provide calories, but they lack vitamins, minerals, and fiber. Because they lack nutrients, these foods provide "empty calories" and can lead to weight gain. Try to minimize your intake of foods with added sugars.
These nutrient-rich foods are high in starch. Many are also high in fiber:
Refined grains, such as those found in pastries, white bread, crackers, and white rice also contain starch. However, they lack B vitamins and other important nutrients unless they are marked "enriched." Foods made with refined or "white" flour also contain less fiber and protein than whole-grain products, and do not help you feel as satisfied.
High-fiber foods include:
Most processed and refined foods, enriched or not, are low in fiber.
Eating too many carbohydrates in the form of processed, starchy, or sugary foods can cause an increase in total calories. This can lead to weight gain.
Severely restricting carbohydrates can cause ketosis. This is when the body uses fat for energy because there are not enough carbohydrates from food for the body to use for energy.
It is best to get most of your carbohydrates from whole grains, dairy, fruits, and vegetables instead rather than refined grains. In addition to calories, whole foods provide vitamins, minerals, and fiber.
By making smart food choices, you can get the full range of healthy carbohydrates and plenty of nutrients:
The food guide plate recommends filling half of your plate with fruits and vegetables, and one-third of your plate with grains, at least half of which are whole grains.
Here is a sample 2,000-calorie menu with healthy carbohydrate choices:
Smoked turkey sandwich, made with 2 ounces (55 grams) whole-wheat pita bread, 1/4 cup (12 grams) romaine lettuce, 2 slices tomato, 3 ounces (85 grams) sliced smoked turkey breast.
Abumrad NA, Nassir F, Marcus A. Digestion and absorption of dietary fat, carbohydrate, and protein. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger & Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 102.
Baynes JW. Carbohydrates and lipids. In: Baynes JW, Dominiczak MH, eds. Medical Biochemistry. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 3.
Bird R. Nutrition. In: Miller MD, Thompson SR, eds. DeLee & Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 30.
US Department of Health and Human Services and US Department of Agriculture. 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. 8th ed. health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015/guidelines/. Updated December 2015. Accessed April 17, 2018.
Review Date: 1/13/2018
Reviewed By: Emily Wax, RD, The Brooklyn Hospital Center, Brooklyn, NY. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
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