Craniosynostosis is a birth defect in which one or more of the sutures on a baby's head closes earlier than usual.
The skull of an infant or young child is made up of bony plates that allow for growth of the skull. The borders at which these plates intersect are called sutures or suture lines. The sutures between these bony plates normally close by the time the child is 2 or 3 years old.
Early closing of a suture causes the baby to have an abnormally shaped head and may limit brain growth.
Premature closure of sutures; Synostosis; Plagiocephaly; Scaphocephaly; Fontanelle - craniosynostosis; Soft spot - craniosynostosis
The cause of craniosynostosis is unknown. Genes may play a role, but there is usually no family history of the condition.
One type that is passed down through families (inherited) can occur with other health problems, such as seizures, decreased intelligence, and blindness. Genetic disorders commonly linked to craniosynostosis include Crouzon, Apert, Carpenter, Saethre-Chotzen, and Pfeiffer syndromes.
However, most children with craniosynostosis are otherwise healthy and have normal intelligence.
Symptoms depend on the type of craniosynostosis. They may include:
Types of craniosynostosis:
Exams and Tests
The health care provider will feel the infant's head and perform a physical exam.
The following tests may be done:
Well-child visits are an important part of your child's health care. They allow your provider to regularly check the growth of your infant's head over time. This will help identify any problems early.
Surgery is done while the baby is still an infant. The goals of surgery are:
How well a child does depends on:
Children with this condition who have surgery do well in most cases, especially when the condition is not associated with a genetic syndrome.
Craniosynostosis results in head deformity that can be severe and permanent if it is not corrected. Increased intracranial pressure, seizures, and developmental delay can occur.
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Call your child's provider if:
Graham JM, Sanchwez-Lara PA. Craniosynostosis. In: Graham JM, Sanchez-Lara PA, eds. Smith's'Recognizable Patterns of Human Deformation. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 29.
Kinsman SL, Johnston MV. Craniosynostosis. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 591.
Review Date: 11/3/2015
Reviewed By: Kimberly G. Lee, MD, MSc, IBCLC, Associate Professor of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
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