An anorectal abscess is a collection of pus in the area of the anus and rectum.
Anal abscess; Rectal abscess; Perirectal abscess; Perianal abscess; Gland abscess; Abscess - anorectal
Common causes of anorectal abscess include:
The following factors increase the risk for an anorectal abscess:
The condition affects men more than women. The condition may occur in infants and toddlers who are still in diapers and who have a history of anal fissures.
Common symptoms are swelling around the anus and a constant, throbbing pain with swelling. Pain may be severe with bowel movements, coughing and sitting.
Other symptoms may include:
In infants, the abscess often appears as a swollen, red, tender lump at the edge of the anus. The infant may be fussy and irritable from discomfort. There are usually no other symptoms.
Exams and Tests
The problem rarely goes away on its own. Antibiotics alone usually cannot treat an abscess.
Treatment involves surgery to open and drain the abscess.
Drained abscesses are usually left open and no stitches are needed.
The surgeon may prescribe painkillers and antibiotics.
You may need stool softeners. Practice good hygiene. Eat soft or liquid foods until the abscess has healed.
With prompt treatment, people with this condition usually do well. Infants and toddlers usually recover quickly.
Complications can occur when treatment is delayed.
Complications of anorectal abscess may include:
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Call your provider if you:
Prevention or prompt treatment of STDs may prevent an anorectal abscess from forming. Use condoms during intercourse, including anal sex, to prevent such infections.
In infants and toddlers, frequent diaper changes and proper cleaning during diaper changes can help prevent both anal fissures and abscesses.
Blumetti J, Cintron JR. Anorectal abscess and fistula. In: Cameron JL, Cameron AM, eds. Current Surgical Therapy. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:265-274.
Coates WC. Disorders of the anorectum. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 96.
Merchea A, Larson DW. Anus. In: Townsend CM, Beauchamp RD, Evers BM, Mattox KL, eds. Sabiston Textbook of Surgery. 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 52.
Review Date: 5/24/2016
Reviewed By: Mary C. Mancini, MD, PhD, Department of Surgery, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center-Shreveport, Shreveport, LA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
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