Enteritis is inflammation of the small intestine.
Enteritis is usually caused by eating or drinking substances that are contaminated with bacteria or viruses. The germs settle in the small intestine and cause inflammation and swelling.
Enteritis may also be caused by:
Risk factors include recent family illness with intestinal symptoms, recent travel, or exposure to untreated or contaminated water.
Types of enteritis include:
The symptoms may begin hours to days after you become infected. Symptoms may include:
Exams and Tests
A stool culture may be done to determine the type of infection. However, this test may not always identify the bacteria causing the illness.
Mild cases usually do not need treatment.
Antidiarrheal medication may not be recommended because it can slow the germ from leaving the digestive tract.
Rehydration with electrolyte solutions may be needed if the body does not have enough fluids (dehydration).
Persons with diarrhea (especially young children) who are unable to drink fluids because of nausea may need medical care and fluids through a vein (intravenous fluids).
If you take diuretics and develop diarrhea, you may need to stop taking the diuretic. However, do not stop taking any medicine unless directed by your health care provider.
Symptoms usually go away without treatment in a few days.
Note: The diarrhea can cause rapid and extreme dehydration in babies.
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Call for an appointment with your health care provider if:
DuPont HL. Approach to the patient with suspected enteric infection. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 291.
Semrad CE. Approach to the patient with diarrhea and malabsorption. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 142.
Giannella Ra. Infectious enteritis and proctocolitis and bacterial food poisoning. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger & Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2010:chap 107.
Review Date: 4/26/2012
Reviewed By: Linda J. Vorvick, MD, Medical Director and Director of Didactic Curriculum, MEDEX Northwest Division of Physician Assistant Studies, Department of Family Medicine, UW Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington; and George F Longstreth, MD, Department of Gastroenterology, Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program, San Diego, California. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc.
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