A gastrointestinal fistula is an abnormal opening in the stomach or intestines that allows the contents to leak.
Entero-enteral fistula; Enterocutaneous fistula; Fistula - gastrointestinal; Crohn disease - fistula
Most gastrointestinal fistulas occur after surgery. Other causes include:
Depending on where the leak is, these fistulas may cause diarrhea, and poor absorption of nutrients. Your body may not have as much water and fluids as it needs.
Exams and Tests
Tests may include:
Treatments may include:
Some fistulas close on their own after a few weeks to months.
The outlook depends on the person's overall health and how bad the fistula is. People who are otherwise healthy have a very good chance of recovery.
Fistulas may result in malnutrition and dehydration, depending on their location in the intestine. They may also cause skin problems and infection.
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Call your health care provider if you have:
De Prisco G, Celinski S, Spak CW. Abdominal abscesses and gastrointestinal fistuals. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 28.
Lichtenstein GR. Inflammatory bowel disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 141.
Nussbaum MS, McFadden DW. Gastric, duodenal, and small intestinal fistulas. In: Yeo CJ, ed. Shackleford's Surgery of the Alimentary Tract. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2019:chap 76.
Review Date: 4/9/2018
Reviewed By: Michael M. Phillips, MD, Clinical Professor of Medicine, The George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, DC. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
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