Basal ganglia dysfunction
Basal ganglia dysfunction is a problem with the deep brain structures that help start and control movement.
Extrapyramidal syndrome; Antipsychotics - extrapyramidal
Conditions that cause injury to the brain can damage the basal ganglia. Such conditions include:
A common cause of these findings is chronic use of medicines used to treat schizophrenia.
Many brain disorders are associated with basal ganglia dysfunction. They include:
Damage to the basal ganglia cells may cause problems controlling speech, movement, and posture. This combination of symptoms is called parkinsonism.
A person with basal ganglia dysfunction may have difficulty starting, stopping, or sustaining movement. Depending on which area of the brain is affected, there may also be problems with memory and other thought processes.
In general, symptoms vary and may include:
Exams and Tests
The health care provider will perform a physical exam and ask about the symptoms and medical history.
Blood and imaging tests may be needed. These may include:
Treatment depends on the cause of the disorder.
How well a person does depends on the cause of the dysfunction. Some causes are reversible, while others require lifelong treatment.
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Call your provider if you have any abnormal or involuntary movements, falls without known reason, or if you or others notice that you are shaky or slow.
Jankovic J. Parkinson disease and other movement disorders. In: Daroff RB, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, Pomeroy SL, eds. Bradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 96.
Lang AE. Other movement disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 410.
Melnick ME. Basal ganglia disorders. In: Umphred DA, Burton GU, Lazaro RT, Roller ML, eds. Umphred's Neurological Renabilitation. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2013:chap 20.
Review Date: 5/30/2016
Reviewed By: Amit M. Shelat, DO, FACP, Attending Neurologist and Assistant Professor of Clinical Neurology, SUNY Stony Brook, School of Medicine, Stony Brook, NY. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
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