Endometrial cancer is cancer that starts in the endometrium, the lining of the uterus (womb).
Endometrial adenocarcinoma; Uterine adenocarcinoma; Uterine cancer; Adenocarcinoma - endometrium; Adenocarcinoma - uterus; Cancer - uterine; Cancer - endometrial; Uterine corpus cancer
Endometrial cancer is the most common type of uterine cancer. The exact cause of endometrial cancer is unknown. An increased level of estrogen may play a role. Estrogen helps stimulate the buildup of the lining of the uterus. This can lead to overgrowth of the endometrium and cancer.
Most cases of endometrial cancer occur between the ages of 60 and 70. A few cases may occur before age 40.
The following factors related to your hormones increase your risk of endometrial cancer:
Women with the following conditions also seem to be at a higher risk of endometrial cancer:
Symptoms of endometrial cancer include:
Exams and Tests
During the early stages of disease, a pelvic exam is often normal. As the cancer becomes more advanced, there may be changes in the size, shape, or feel of the uterus or surrounding structures.
Tests that may be done include:
Stages of endometrial cancer are:
Cancer is also described as grade 1, 2, or 3. Grade 1 is the least aggressive, and grade 3 is the most aggressive. Aggressive means that the cancer grows and spreads quickly.
Surgery to remove the uterus (hysterectomy) may be done in women with early stage 1 cancer. The doctor may also recommend removing the tubes and ovaries.
Surgery combined with radiation therapy is another treatment option. It is often used for women with:
Chemotherapy or hormonal therapy may be considered in some cases, most often for those with stage 3 and 4 disease.
You can ease the stress of illness by joining a cancer support group. Sharing with others who have common experiences and problems can help you not feel alone.
Endometrial cancer is usually diagnosed at an early stage.
If the cancer has not spread, 95% of women are alive after 5 years. If the cancer has spread to distant organs, about 25% of women are still alive after 5 years.
Complications may include any of the following:
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Call for an appointment with your health care provider if you have any of the following:
There is no effective screening test for endometrial (uterine) cancer.
Women with risk factors for endometrial cancer should be followed closely by their doctors. This includes women who are taking estrogen replacement therapy without progesterone therapy or women who have taken tamoxifen for more than 2 years. Frequent pelvic exams, Pap smears and endometrial biopsy may be considered in some cases.
The risk of endometrial cancer is reduced by:
Boggess JF, Kilgore JE. Uterine cancer. In: Niederhuber JE, Armitage JO, Doroshow JH, Kastan MB, Tepper JE, eds. Abeloff's Clinical Oncology. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2014:chap 88.
Morice P, Leary A, Creutzberg C, Abu-Rustum N, Darai E. Endometrial cancer. Lancet. 2016;387(10023):1094-1108. PMID: 26354523 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26354523.
National Cancer Institute: PDQ endometrial cancer treatment. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute. Updated February 2, 2016. www.cancer.gov/types/uterine/hp/endometrial-treatment-pdq. Accessed April 11, 2016.
National Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN clinical practice guidelines in oncology (NCCN guidelines): uterine neoplasms. Version 2. 2016. www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/pdf/uterine.pdf. Accessed April 11, 2016.
Review Date: 4/5/2016
Reviewed By: Irina Burd, MD, PhD, Associate Professor of Gynecology and Obstetrics at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
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