Acne is a skin condition that causes pimples or "zits." Whiteheads, blackheads, and red, inflamed patches of skin (such as cysts) may develop.
Acne vulgaris; Cystic acne; Pimples; Zits
Acne occurs when tiny holes on the surface of the skin become clogged. These holes are called pores.
Acne is most common in teenagers, but anyone can get acne, even babies. The problem tends to run in families.
Some things that may trigger acne include:
Research does not show that chocolate, nuts, and greasy foods cause acne. However, diets high in refined sugars or dairy products may be related to acne in some people.
Acne commonly appears on the face and shoulders. It may also occur on the trunk, arms, legs, and buttocks. Skin changes include:
Exams and Tests
Your doctor can diagnose acne by looking at your skin. Testing is not needed in most cases.
Steps you can take to help your acne:
What NOT to do:
If these steps do not clear up the blemishes, try over-the-counter acne medicines that you apply to your skin.
A small amount of sun exposure may improve acne slightly, but tanning mostly hides the acne. Too much exposure to sunlight or ultraviolet rays is not recommended because it increases the risk for skin cancer.
MEDICINES FROM YOUR HEALTH CARE PROVIDER
If pimples are still a problem, a health care provider can prescribe stronger medications and discuss other options with you.
Antibiotics may help some people with acne:
Creams or gels applied to the skin may be prescribed:
For women whose acne is caused or made worse by hormones:
Minor procedures or treatments may also be helpful:
People who have cystic acne and scarring may try a medicine called isotretinoin (Accutane). You will be watched closely when taking this medicine because of its side effects.
Pregnant women should NOT take Accutane, because it causes severe birth defects.
Most of the time, acne goes away after the teenage years, but it may last into middle age. The condition often responds well to treatment after 6 - 8 weeks, but may flare up from time to time.
Scarring may occur if severe acne is not treated. Some people become very depressed if acne is not treated.
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Call your doctor or a dermatologist if:
If your baby has acne, call the baby's health care provider if acne does not clear up on its own within 3 months.
Zaenglein AL, Thiboutot DM. Acne vulgaris. In: Bolognia JL, Jorizzo JL, Schaffer JV, et al, eds. Dermatology. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2012:chap 36.
Review Date: 10/18/2013
Reviewed By: Richard J. Moskowitz, MD, Dermatologist in Private Practice, Mineola, NY. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Bethanne Black, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
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