Erythema multiforme (EM) is a skin reaction that comes from an infection or another trigger.
EM; Erythema multiforme minor; Erythema multiforme major; Erythema multiforme minor - erythema multiforme von Hebra; Acute bullous disorder - erythema multiforme; Herpes simplex - erythema multiforme
EM is a type of allergic reaction. In most cases, it occurs in response to an infection. In rare cases, it is caused by certain medicines or body-wide (systemic) illness.
Infections that may lead to EM include:
Medicines that may cause EM include:
Systemic illnesses that are associated with EM include:
EM occurs mostly in adults 20 to 40 years old. People with EM often have family members who have had EM as well.
Symptoms of EM include:
Skin sores may:
Other symptoms may include:
There are 2 forms of EM:
Exams and Tests
Your health care provider will look at your skin to diagnose EM. You'll be asked about your medical history, such as recent infections or medicines you've taken.
Tests may include:
EM usually goes away on its own with or without treatment.
Your provider will have you stop taking any medicines that may be causing the problem. But, don't stop taking medicines on your own without talking to your provider first.
Treatment symptoms may include:
Good hygiene and staying away from other people may help prevent secondary infections (infections that occur from treating the first infection).
Mild forms of EM usually get better in 2 to 6 weeks, but the problem may return.
Complications of EM may include:
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Call your provider right away if you have symptoms of EM.
French LE, Prins C. Erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis. In: Bolognia JL, Jorizzo JL, Schaffer JV, eds. Dermatology. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 20.
Revuz J. Erythema multiforme. In: Lebwohl MG, Heymann WR, Berth-Jones J, Coulson I, eds. Treatment of Skin Disease: Comprehensive Therapeutic Strategies. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 72.
Sokumbi O, Wetter DA. Clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of erythema multiforme: a review for the practicing dermatologist. Int J Dermatol. 2012;51(8):889-902. PMID: 22788803 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22788803.
Review Date: 10/24/2016
Reviewed By: David L. Swanson, MD, Vice Chair of Medical Dermatology, Associate Professor of Dermatology, Mayo Medical School, Scottsdale, AZ. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
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