The common cold most often causes a runny nose, nasal congestion, and sneezing. You may also have a sore throat, cough, headache, or other symptoms.
Upper respiratory infection - viral; Cold
It is called the common cold for good reason. There are over one billion colds in the United States each year. You and your children will probably have more colds than any other type of illness.
Colds are the most common reason that children miss school and parents miss work. Parents often get colds from their children.
Children can get many colds every year. They usually get them from other children. A cold can spread quickly through schools or daycares.
Colds can occur at any time of the year, but they are most common in the winter or rainy seasons.
A cold virus spreads through tiny, air droplets that are released when the sick person sneezes, coughs, or blows their nose.
You can catch a cold if:
People are most contagious for the first 2 to 3 days of a cold. A cold is most often not contagious after the first week.
Cold symptoms usually start about 2 or 3 days after you came in contact with the virus, although it could take up to a week. Symptoms mostly affect the nose.
The most common cold symptoms are:
Adults and older children with colds generally have a low fever or no fever. Young children often run a fever around 100 to 102°F (37.7 to 38.8°C).
Depending on which virus caused your cold, you may also have:
Most colds go away in a few days. Some things you can do to take care of yourself with a cold include:
The fluid from your runny nose will become thicker and may turn yellow or green within a few days. This is normal, and not a reason for antibiotics.
Most cold symptoms go away within a week in most cases. If you still feel sick after 7 days, see your provider to rule out a sinus infection, allergies, or other medical problem.
Colds are the most common trigger of wheezing in children with asthma.
A cold may also lead to:
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Try treating your cold at home first. Call your health care provider if:
To lower your chances of getting sick:
The immune system helps your body fight off infection. Here are ways to support the immune system:
Fashner J, Ericson K, Werner S. Treatment of the common cold in children and adults. Am Fam Physician. 2012;86(2):153-159. PMID: 22962927 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22962927.
Singh M, Das RR. Zinc for the common cold. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2013, Issue 6. Art. No.: CD001364. PMID: 23775705 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23775705.
Turner RB. The common cold. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 369.
Review Date: 1/31/2015
Reviewed By: Linda J. Vorvick, MD, medical director and director of didactic curriculum, MEDEX Northwest Division of Physician Assistant Studies, Department of Family Medicine, UW Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
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