Blockage of upper airway
Blockage of the upper airway occurs when the upper breathing passages become narrowed or blocked, making it hard to breathe. Areas in the upper airway that can be affected are the windpipe (trachea), voice box (larynx) or throat (pharynx).
Airway obstruction - acute upper
The airway can become narrowed or blocked due to many causes, including:
Symptoms vary, depending on the cause. But some symptoms are common to all types of airway blockage. These include:
Exams and Tests
The health care provider will do a physical examination, which may show:
Tests are usually not necessary, but may include:
Treatment depends on the cause of the blockage.
If the obstruction is due to a foreign body, such as a piece of food that has been breathed in, doing abdominal thrusts can save the person's life.
Prompt treatment is often successful. But the condition is dangerous and may be fatal, even when treated.
If the obstruction is not relieved, it can cause:
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Airway obstruction is often an emergency. Call 911 or the local emergency number for medical help. Follow instructions on how to help keep the person breathing until help arrives.
Prevention depends on the cause of the upper airway obstruction.
The following methods may help prevent an obstruction:
Learn how to clear a foreign body from the airway using a method such as abdominal thrusts.
Cukor J, Manno M. Pediatric respiratory emergencies: upper airway obstruction and infections. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2013:chap 168.
Reardon RF, Mason PE, Clinton JE. Basic airway management and decision-making. In: Roberts JR, ed. Roberts & Hedges' Clinical Procedures in Emergency Medicine. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 3.
Thomas SH, Goodloe JM. Foreign bodies. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2013:chap 60.
Review Date: 7/6/2015
Reviewed By: Jacob L. Heller, MD, MHA, Emergency Medicine, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
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