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Muscle biopsy

Definition

A muscle biopsy is the removal of a small piece of muscle tissue for examination.

Alternative Names

Biopsy - muscle

How the Test is Performed

This procedure is usually done while you are awake. The health care provider will apply a numbing medicine (local anesthesia) to the biopsy area.

There are 2 types of muscle biopsy:

  • A needle biopsy involves inserting a needle into the muscle. When the needle is removed, a small piece of tissue remains in the needle. More than one needle stick may be needed to get a large enough sample.
  • An open biopsy involves making a small cut in the skin and into the muscle. The muscle tissue is then removed.

After either type of biopsy, the tissue is sent to a laboratory for examination.

How to Prepare for the Test

No special preparation is usually needed. If you will have anesthesia, follow instructions on not eating or drinking anything before the test.

How the Test will Feel

During the biopsy, there is usually little or no discomfort. You may feel some pressure or tugging.

The anesthetic may burn or sting when injected (before the area becomes numb). After the anesthetic wears off, the area may be sore for about a week.

Why the Test is Performed

A muscle biopsy may be done to identify or detect:

  • Inflammatory diseases of muscle (such as polymyositis or dermatomyositis)
  • Diseases of the connective tissue and blood vessels (such as polyarteritis nodosa)
  • Infections that affect the muscles (such as trichinosis or toxoplasmosis)
  • Inherited muscle disorders such as muscular dystrophy or congenital myopathy
  • Metabolic defects of the muscle
  • Effects of medicines, toxins, or electrolyte disorders

A muscle biopsy may also be done to tell the difference between nerve and muscle disorders.

A muscle that has recently been injured, such as by an EMG needle, or is affected by a pre-existing condition, such as nerve compression, is not a good choice for a biopsy.

Normal Results

A normal result means the muscle is normal.

What Abnormal Results Mean

A muscle biopsy can help diagnose the following conditions:

  • Loss of muscle mass (atrophy)
  • Muscle disease that involves inflammation and a skin rash (dermatomyositis)
  • Inherited muscle disorder (Duchenne muscular dystrophy)
  • Inflammation of the muscle
  • Various muscular dystrophies
  • Destruction of the muscle (myopathic changes)
  • Tissue death of the muscle (necrosis)
  • Disorders that involve inflammation of the blood vessels and affect muscles (necrotizing vasculitis)
  • Traumatic muscle damage
  • Paralyzed muscles
  • Inflammatory disease causing muscle weakness, swelling tenderness, and tissue damage (polymyositis)
  • Nerve problems that affect the muscles
  • Muscle tissue under the skin (fascia) becomes swollen, inflamed, and thick (eosinophilic fasciitis)

There are additional conditions under which the test may be performed.

Risks

The risks of this test are small, but may include:

  • Bleeding
  • Bruising
  • Damage to the muscle tissue or other tissues in the area (very rare)
  • Infection (a slight risk any time the skin is broken)

References

Dubowitz V, Sewry CA, Oldfors A. The procedure of muscle biopsy. In: Dubowitz V, Sewry CA, Oldfors A, eds. Muscle Biopsy: A Practical Approach. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 1.



Review Date: 7/21/2016
Reviewed By: Gordon A. Starkebaum, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., a business unit of Ebix, Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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