Acute kidney failure
Acute kidney failure is the rapid (less than 2 days) loss of your kidneys' ability to remove waste and help balance fluids and electrolytes in your body.
Kidney failure; Renal failure; Renal failure - acute; ARF; Kidney injury - acute
There are many possible causes of kidney damage. They include:
Symptoms of acute kidney failure may include any of the following:
Exams and Tests
The doctor or nurse will examine you. Many patients with kidney disease have body swelling caused by fluid retention. The doctor may hear a heart murmur, crackles in the lungs, or other abnormal sounds when listening to the heart and lungs with a stethoscope.
The results of laboratory tests may change suddenly (within a few days to 2 weeks). Such tests may include:
A kidney or abdominal ultrasound is the preferred test for diagnosing a blockage in the urinary tract. X-ray, CT scan, or MRI of the abdomen can also tell if there is a blockage.
Blood tests may help reveal the underlying cause of kidney failure. Arterial blood gas and blood chemistries may show metabolic acidosis.
Once the cause is found, the goal of treatment is to help your kidneys work again and prevent fluid and waste from building up in your body while they heal. Usually, you will have to stay overnight in the hospital for treatment.
The amount of liquid you drink will be limited to the amount of urine you can produce. You will be told what you may and may not eat to reduce the buildup of toxins that the kidneys would normally remove. Your diet may need to be high in carbohydrates and low in protein, salt, and potassium.
You may need antibiotics to treat or prevent infection. Diuretics (water pills) may be used to help remove fluid from your body.
Medicines will be given through a vein to help control your blood potassium level.
You may need dialysis. This is a treatment that does what healthy kidneys normally do -- rid the body of harmful wastes, extra salt, and water. Dialysis can save your life if your potassium levels are dangerously high. Dialysis will also be used if:
Dialysis will most often be short term. In rare cases, the kidney damage is so great that dialysis is needed permanently.
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Call your health care provider if your urine output slows or stops or you have other symptoms of acute kidney failure.
Treating disorders such as high blood pressure can help prevent acute kidney failure.
Molitoris BA. Acute kidney injury. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 122.
Sharfuddin AA, Weisbord SD, Palevsky PM, Molitoris BA. Acute kidney injury. In: Taal MW, Chertow GM, et al, eds. Brenner & Rector's The Kidney. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 30.
Review Date: 7/24/2014
Reviewed By: Charles Silberberg, DO, Private Practice specializing in Nephrology, Affiliated with New York Medical College, Division of Nephrology, Valhalla, NY. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.