Nephrotic syndrome is a group of symptoms that include protein in the urine, low blood protein levels, high cholesterol levels, high triglyceride levels, and swelling.
Nephrotic syndrome is caused by different disorders that damage the kidneys. This damage leads to the release of too much protein in the urine.
The most common cause in children is minimal change disease. Membranous glomerulonephritis is the most common cause in adults.
This condition can also occur from:
It can occur with kidney disorders such as:
Nephrotic syndrome can affect all age groups. In children, it is most common between ages 2 and 6. This disorder occurs slightly more often in males than females.
Swelling (edema) is the most common symptom. It may occur:
Other symptoms include:
Exams and Tests
The doctor will perform a physical exam. Laboratory tests will be done to see how well the kidneys are working. They include:
Fats are often also present in the urine. Blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels may be high.
A kidney biopsy may be needed to find the cause of the disorder.
Tests to rule out various causes may include the following:
This disease may also change the results of the following tests:
The goals of treatment are to relieve symptoms, prevent complications, and delay kidney damage. To control nephrotic syndrome, you must treat the disorder that is causing it. You may need treatment for life.
The outcome varies. The condition may be acute and short-term or chronic and not respond to treatment. The complications that occur can also affect the outcome.
Some people may eventually need dialysis and a kidney transplant.
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Call your health care provider if:
Go to the emergency room or call the local emergency number (such as 911) if you have convulsions.
Treating conditions that can cause nephrotic syndrome may help prevent the syndrome.
Appel GB. Glomerular disorders and nephrotic syndromes. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Medicine. 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 122.
Nachman PH, Jennette JC, Falk RJ. Primary glomerular disease. In: Brenner BM, ed. Brenner and Rector's The Kidney. 8th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 30.
Review Date: 9/8/2013
Reviewed By: Charles Silberberg, DO, Private Practice specializing in Nephrology, Affiliated with New York Medical College, Division of Nephrology, Valhalla, NY. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Bethanne Black, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.