Bladder outlet obstruction
Bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) is a blockage at the base of the bladder. It reduces or stops the flow of urine into the urethra. The urethra is the tube that carries urine out of the body.
BOO; Lower urinary tract obstruction; Prostatism; Urinary retention - BOO
This condition is common in aging men. It is often caused by enlarged prostate. Bladder stones and bladder cancer are also more commonly seen in men than women. As a man ages, the chances of getting these diseases increase greatly.
Other common causes of BOO include:
Less common causes include:
The symptoms of BOO may vary, but can include:
Exams and Tests
Your health care provider will ask about your symptoms and medical history. You will undergo a physical exam.
One or more of the following problems may be found:
Tests may include:
Treatment of BOO depends on its cause. A tube, called a catheter, is inserted into the bladder through the urethra. This is done to relieve the blockage.
Sometimes, a catheter is placed through the belly area into the bladder to drain the bladder. This is called a suprapubic tube.
Most often, you will need surgery for long-term cure of BOO. However, many of the diseases that cause this problem can be treated with medicines. Talk to your provider about possible treatments.
Most causes of BOO can be cured if diagnosed early. However, if the diagnosis or treatment is delayed, this can cause permanent damage to the bladder or kidneys.
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Call your provider if you have symptoms of BOO.
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Boone TB, Stewart JN. Additional therapies for storage and emptying failure. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Partin AW, Peters CA, eds. Campbell-Walsh Urology. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 87.
McNicholas TA, Speakman MJ, Kirby RS. Evaluation and nonsurgical management of benign prostatic hyperplasia. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Partin AW, Peters CA, eds. Campbell-Walsh Urology. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 104.
Zeidel ML. Obstructive uropathy. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 123.
Review Date: 5/31/2018
Reviewed By: Sovrin M. Shah, MD, Assistant Professor, Department of Urology, The Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
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