Infertility in women
Risk factors for female infertility include:
Infertility may be caused by an underlying medical condition that damages the fallopian tubes, interferes with ovulation, or causes hormonal complications. These medical conditions include:
If you have been unable to conceive after 1 year of unprotected sex, talk with your health care provider about having your fertility evaluated. Fertility testing should especially be performed if a woman is over 35 years old or if either partner has known risk factors for infertility. An analysis of the man's semen should be performed before the female partner undergoes any invasive testing.
Treatment for infertility should first address any underlying medical condition that may be contributing to fertility problems. If this step does not restore fertility, there are several treatment approaches:
Lifestyle Tips for Optimizing Natural Fertility
The American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) has guidelines for how couples can increase the likelihood of achieving pregnancy (these recommendations apply to couples who have no evidence of infertility):
Infertility is the failure of a couple to become pregnant after 1 year of regular, unprotected sexual intercourse. In most cases infertility is actually decreased fertility due to a number of treatable conditions and not genuine sterility, which is a rare.
About a third of infertility problems are due to female infertility, and another third are due to male infertility. In the remaining cases, infertility affects both partners or the cause is unclear.
Female infertility may occur when:
The Female Reproductive System
In order to understand infertility, it is important to know the organs and structures of the female reproductive system:
The uterus is a hollow muscular organ located in the female pelvis between the bladder and rectum. The ovaries produce the eggs that travel through the fallopian tubes. Once the egg has left the ovary it can be fertilized and implant itself in the lining of the uterus.
The Reproductive Cycle
During a woman's monthly menstrual cycle, her body prepares for conception and pregnancy. The average menstrual cycle is about 28 days but a normal cycle can range from 21 to 35 days. The menstrual cycle is divided into three phases: follicular, ovulatory, and luteal.
Follicular Phase (Days 1 to 13)
The follicular phase begins with the first day of menstrual bleeding:
Ovulatory Phase (Day 14)
The ovulatory phase occurs halfway through the menstrual cycle. During the ovulatory phase:
Luteal Phase (Days 15 to 28)
The luteal phase begins immediately after ovulation and ends when the next menstrual period starts. The luteal phase lasts about 12 to 16 days. During the luteal phase:
Fertilization and Pregnancy
Conception occurs when an egg is fertilized by a sperm. When fertilization occurs:
Most cases of female infertility are due to medical conditions that cause:
Ovulation is the release of the egg that occurs during the monthly menstrual cycle. Problems that affect ovulation, and the hormones involved with ovulation, are the most common cause of female infertility. These conditions include:
Blocked Fallopian Tubes
A blocked fallopian tube can prevent sperm from reaching and fertilizing the egg. Blockage in the fallopian tubes can also prevent a fertilized egg from traveling to the uterus for implantation. Conditions that can block or damage fallopian tubes include:
Endometriosis is a noncancerous condition in which cells that normally line the uterus (endometrium) also grow on other areas of the body, causing pain and abnormal bleeding.
Structural problems in a women's reproductive system may be caused by:
Cervical Mucus and Egg Quality
Low amounts of cervical mucus or poor quality cervical mucus can contribute to infertility by interfering with the sperm's ability to reach and fertilize the egg.
Ovarian reserve refers to the quality and quantity of a woman's eggs. As a woman ages, the number and quality of her eggs diminish. Younger women can also have problems with ovarian reserve, usually because of medical conditions or treatments that affect the ovaries.
Other Causes of Infertility
Hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid gland) and type 1 diabetes are some of the medical conditions that can contribute to infertility. Other autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis can affect fertility.
Fertility declines as a woman ages. Fertility begins to decrease when a woman reaches age 32, and rapidly declines after age 37. As a woman ages, her ovaries produce fewer eggs. In addition, the quality of the eggs is poorer than those of younger women. Older women are also more likely to have health problems that may interfere with fertility.
Although most of a woman's estrogen is manufactured in her ovaries, smaller amounts are produced by fat cells, which transform male hormones produced by the adrenal glands into estrogen. Because a normal hormonal balance is essential for the process of conception, extreme weight levels (either high or low) can contribute to infertility.
Being overweight or obese can contribute to infertility in various ways. Obesity is also associated with PCOS, an endocrine disorder that can cause infertility.
Being extremely underweight is a risk factor for infertility. Body fat levels that are significantly below normal can completely shut down the ovulation process.
Cigarette smoking can harm a woman's ovaries and contribute to a decrease in eggs. The cells that line the fallopian tubes may also slow down their ability to move the fertilized egg into the uterine cavity for implantation, resulting in abnormal pregnancies. Smoking may also interfere with the success of fertility treatments.
Alcohol and Caffeine Use
Alcohol and caffeine use may contribute to infertility. If you are trying to become pregnant, it is best to avoid alcohol. Alcohol use in early pregnancy can contribute to birth defects. Moderate coffee intake does not increase the risk for infertility and does not decrease the success rate of IVF. However, try to limit consumption to no more than 2 cups of coffee a day. Drinking more than 5 cups of coffee a day may reduce fertility.
Exposure to environmental hazards (such as herbicides, pesticides, and industrial solvents) may affect fertility. Estrogen-like chemicals that interfere with normal hormones are of particular concern for infertility in men and for effects on offspring of women. Phthalates, chemicals used to soften plastics, are under particular scrutiny because they may disrupt hormones.
Neurotransmitters (chemical messengers in the brain) act in the hypothalamus gland, which controls both reproductive and stress hormones. There is no conclusive evidence that stress has any significant effect on fertility or fertility treatments.
Both male and female partners should get tested for infertility if pregnancy fails to occur after 1 year of regular unprotected sexual intercourse. If a woman is over age 35, fertility testing is recommended if she fails to conceive after 6 months of unprotected sex
Most couples who do not have fertility problems conceive within the first 6 months of attempting pregnancy, and typically within the first 3 months.
An analysis of the man's semen should be performed before the female partner undergoes any invasive testing.
Ovulation Home Tests
Before beginning an expensive fertility work-up, you can try the following steps at home. They are free or low-cost and may be helpful:
Medical History and Physical Examination
The first step in any infertility work up is a complete medical history and physical examination. Your provider will ask about:
The provider may feel your thyroid gland to check for signs of nodules or enlargement. A pelvic exam will evaluate any signs of masses or structural abnormalities.
Various tests are used to evaluate hormone function and ovarian reserve (the number of follicles and quality of the eggs). These include blood tests for FSH, antimullerian hormone (AMH), progesterone, and estradiol, and urine tests for LH. You may also receive tests to check your thyroid hormone and prolactin levels. Blood tests for previous infections with chlamydia may also be considered and can help women avoid more invasive procedures like laparoscopy.
Clomiphene Challenge Test
Clomiphene citrate (Clomid, Serophene, generic), a standard fertility drug, may be used to test for ovarian reserve. With this test, blood is drawn to measure FSH on day 3 of the menstrual cycle. The woman takes clomiphene on days 5 to 9 of the cycle. FSH is tested again on day 10. A normal response to clomiphene is a moderate increase in FSH levels followed by a return to baseline. High levels of FSH on day 3 or day 10 indicate problems with ovarian function. However, a normal result of the clomiphene test does not necessarily guarantee a good response to fertility treatments.
Imaging tests are used to examine the uterus and fallopian tubes.
Ultrasound and Sonohysterography
Ultrasound is the standard imaging technique for evaluating the uterus and ovaries. It uses a probe placed in the vagina to send out sound waves, which produce an image of the organs. Transvaginal sonohysterography uses ultrasound along with saline infused into the uterus. This helps enhance the image and improve the detection of potential problems.
Hysterosalpingography is an x-ray procedure performed to discover possible blockage in the fallopian tubes and abnormalities in the uterus:
Surgical Diagnostic Procedures
Hysteroscopy uses a long flexible or rigid tube called a hysteroscope, which is inserted into the vagina and advanced through the cervix to reach the uterus. A fiber-optic light source and a tiny camera in the tube allow the doctor to view the uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes.
Hysteroscopy may be done in a medical office or in a hospital operating room, depending on the whether local or general anesthesia is used. The uterus is filled with saline or carbon dioxide to inflate the cavity and provide better viewing. This can cause cramping.
Laparoscopy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure. It requires general anesthesia and is performed in an operating room. The surgeon makes a very small incision below the belly button and inserts an instrument called a laparoscope, which is similar to a hysteroscope. (The difference is that a laparoscope is inserted through the abdomen, while a hysteroscope is inserted through the vagina and cervix.)
Through the laparoscope, the surgeon can view the uterus, fallopian tube, and ovaries. Laparoscopy is most helpful for identifying endometriosis or other adhesions that may affect fertility.
Fertility Treatment Approaches
Several approaches are used to treat infertility:
Choosing a Fertility Clinic
Advanced fertility procedures and medications are expensive and often not covered by insurance. Choosing a good fertility clinic is important. You should ask the fertility clinic questions about:
Special Considerations for Women with Cancer
Women undergoing cancer treatments who are concerned about preserving their fertility should see a reproductive specialist to discuss their options These discussions should take place as early as possible, and before cancer treatment starts.
According to the American Society of Clinical Oncology's guidelines, the best fertility preservation methods for women with cancer are embryo and oocyte (egg) cryopreservation. This procedure involves harvesting and freezing a woman's eggs (oocytes), and can be followed by IVF and freezing of embryos for later use. It requires several weeks of pretreatment with ovarian stimulation drugs, so planning is very important.
Ovarian transposition, which involves moving one or both ovaries outside of the treatment field, may be an option for some women who are undergoing pelvic radiation. If you are going to be having gynecological surgery or radiation as part of your cancer treatment, discuss with your cancer care team any options for procedures that may help conserve fertility. And, be sure your doctors clearly explain to you how various cancer treatments could affect your fertility.
Embryo and oocyte cryopreservation are well-established methods that have excellent chances for success. At this time, other fertility preservation methods such as ovarian tissue cryopreservation, are still considered experimental and the American Society of Clinical Oncology does not recommend them.
Treatment of Fibroids
Fibroids originate from the thick wall of the uterus and are categorized by where they grow. Treatment recommendations are based on the size and type of the fibroid.
Uterine artery embolization is a less invasive treatment for fibroids. This procedure blocks to blood supply to a fibroid, causing it to shrink. However, this treatment is generally not recommended for women seeking future pregnancies.
Medications to treat infertility can be divided into three main categories:
Other drugs may also be used, for example:
Clomiphene citrate (Clomid, Serophene, generic) is usually the first fertility drug prescribed for women who have ovulation problems. (It is less likely to work for women who have normal ovulation.)
Unlike more potent drugs used in superovulation, clomiphene is gentler and works by blocking estrogen, which tricks the pituitary into producing the hormones FSH and LH. This process boosts follicle growth and the release of the egg.
Clomiphene can be taken by mouth, is relatively inexpensive, and the risk for multiple births is lower than with other drugs. One or two tablets are taken each day for 5 days, usually starting 2 to 5 days after the period starts. If successful, ovulation occurs about a week after the last pill has been taken. If ovulation does not occur, then a higher dose may be given for the next cycle.
If this regimen is not successful, treatment may be repeated or additional drugs may be added. Health care providers usually do not recommend more than 6 cycles.
Mood swings are a very common side effect of clomiphene. Other side effects include hot flashes, breast tenderness, nausea, pelvic discomfort, and ovarian cysts.
If clomiphene does not work or is not an appropriate choice, gonadotropin drugs are a second option. Gonadotropins include several different types of drugs that contain either a combination of the hormones FSH and LH, or only FSH.
Whereas clomiphene works indirectly by stimulating the pituitary gland to secrete FSH, which prompts follicle production, gonadotropin hormones directly stimulate the ovaries to produce multiple follicles.
Gonadotropins are given by injection. Your doctor may show you how to self-administer the injection. Gonadotropins include:
Human Menopausal Gonadotropin (hMG)
The hMG drugs contain a mixture of both FSH and LH. These drugs (Menopur, Repronex, and Humegon) are all derived from the urine of postmenopausal women. hMG is administered as a series of injections 2 to 3 days after the period starts. Injections are usually given for 7 to 12 days, but the time may be extended if ovulation does not occur. In such cases, a shot of hCG may trigger ovulation.
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG)
The hCG drugs are similar to LH. It mimics the LH surge, which stimulates the follicle to release the egg. Natural hCG drugs, derived from the urine of pregnant women, include Pregnyl, Profasi, and Novarel. Ovidrel is a genetically modified hCG drug. Ovidrel has fewer side effects and its quality can be better controlled than the natural drugs. It is generally used after hMG or FSH to stimulate the final maturation stages of the follicles. Ovulation, if it occurs, does so about 36 to 72 hours after administration.
Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
Urofollitropin (Bravelle, Fertinex) is a purified form of FSH, derived from the urine of postmenopausal women. Follitropin drugs (Gonal-F, Follistim) are synthetic versions of FSH. These FSH drugs are sometimes given in combination with an hCG drug.
GnRH Analogs (Agonists or Antagonists)
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a hormone produced in the hypothalamus part of the brain. GnRH stimulates the pituitary gland to produce LH and FSH.
GnRH analogs are synthetic forms of GnRH. They are similar to natural GnRH but have very different actions. These drugs actually prevent the LH and FSH surge that occurs right before ovulation. This action helps prevent the premature release of the eggs before they can be harvested for ART.
GnRH analogs are classified as either agonists or antagonists:
Risks for Superovulation
Superovulation is the process of using fertility drugs to stimulate the development of multiple follicles (eggs) in the ovaries. Superovulation is also called controlled ovarian stimulation.
Potential risks and complications of superovulation include:
Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART)
ART are medical techniques that help couples conceive. These procedures involve either:
Fertilization may occur either in the laboratory or in the uterus. In the United States, the number of live birth deliveries from ART has doubled in the last decade. Over 50,000 live births (deliveries of one or more infants) occur each year using ART. According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), over 1% of all babies born in the United States every year are conceived using ART.
Technically, the term ART refers only to fertility treatments, such as IVF and its variants, which handle both egg and sperm.
Intrauterine Insemination (IUI)
Artificial insemination (AI) involves placing the sperm directly in the cervix (called intracervical insemination) or into the uterus (called intrauterine insemination, or IUI).
IUI is the standard AI procedure. It involves placing washed sperm into the woman's uterine cavity through a long, thin catheter. The washing procedure produces high quality sperm by removing seminal fluid and non-motile (not moving) cells, infectious agents, and chemicals used in the cryopreservation of semen. The sperm can come from the woman's male partner or from a donor (third party). The procedure is usually performed for cases of male infertility or unexplained female infertility. It may also be used if a woman has cervical scarring that prevents sperm from entering the uterus.
An IUI procedure is performed close to the time of ovulation. If a woman ovulates naturally, she may have ultrasound or other imaging tests performed to monitor for signs of ovulation. She may also use an ovarian prediction kit at home to test for the LH surge that occurs a few days before ovulation.
IUI is also frequently performed in combination with fertility drugs in a process called controlled ovarian stimulation. These drugs include clomiphene and letrozole, which may be used along with an injection of hCG. The sperm is inserted 1 to 2 days after the hCG injection.
You will take a pregnancy test a few weeks after the procedure. If pregnancy was not achieved, the cycle may be repeated.
IUI is the least complex and least expensive of fertility procedures and is often tried first in uncomplicated cases of infertility. However, it may pose a greater risk for multiple births and have a lower chance for pregnancy success than IVF. For these reasons, some fertility specialists recommend that couples who fail to conceive after 2 to 3 cycles proceed directly to IVF.
In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)
Most ART procedures use IVF. An in vitro procedure is one that is performed in the laboratory. Advances in these procedures have dramatically increased the rate of live births. IVF can be performed with a woman's own eggs and sperm, or with donor eggs and sperm.
A standard IVF cycle is divided into the following steps:
Embryo Transfer Guidelines
The American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) and the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technologies (SART) have joint guidelines on the number of embryos that should be transferred during IVF procedures. The 2017 guidelines distinguish between cleavage-stage embryos (2 to 3 days after fertilization) and blastocyst embryos (5 to 6 days after fertilization). Apart from young age, the guidelines define the following characteristics as favorable prognosis: 1) expectation of one or more high-quality embryos available for cryopreservation; 2) euploid embryos; and 3) previous live birth after an IVF cycle. In people who do not meet criteria for a favorable prognosis in each of the below age groups, an additional embryo transfer may be considered.
For women with favorable prognosis, the 2017 guidelines recommend:
These embryo numbers are recommended for women with favorable prognoses. For women who have failed to become pregnant after at least 2 IVF cycles, or who have a less favorable prognosis, the doctor may consider adding 1 additional embryo. The guidelines apply to both fresh and frozen embryos.
Not all IVF cycles result in pregnancy, and not all IVF-achieved pregnancies result in live births. When a woman's own eggs are used, results are better with fresh embryos than frozen embryos. Success rates depend on many factors, especially the age of the woman.
Data from SART in 2015 indicate that the chances of ART resulting in live birth are about:
Data have been conflicting on whether IVF increases the risk for genetic abnormalities and birth defects. In general, the overall risks for birth defects appear to be small. Studies indicate that most children conceived through IVF are healthy and have normal cognitive development and school performance. However, recent studies suggest that fetuses conceived with ICSI and IVF may have a higher risk of congenital heart defects.
The main risk of IVF is the consequences of multiple pregnancies. Multiple pregnancies increase the chance of health problems for a mother and her babies. In particular, there is increased risk for premature delivery and low birth weight. These factors can cause heart and lung problems and developmental disabilities in children.
Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer (GIFT) and Zygote Intrafallopian Transfer (ZIFT)
GIFT is a laparoscopic procedure by which both washed sperm from the male partner and eggs from the female partner are transferred to the fallopian tubes at the same time. Egg retrieval precedes GIFT in the same surgical event. GIFT is not an IVF procedure, since fertilization occurs in the fallopian tubes.
ZIFT is the laparoscopic transfer of zygotes (single cell stage of the embryo) to the fallopian tubes, 24 hours after IVF. ZIFT following all but the last step of IVF as described above.
GIFT and ZIFT are rarely performed due to the requirement for laparoscopy. Studies have not proven them to be more successful compared to traditional IVF.
Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)
ICSI is an ART used for couples when male infertility is the main problem. It involves injecting a single sperm into an egg obtained from IVF.
The procedure is very simple:
The greatest concern with this procedure has been whether it increases the risk for birth defects. Many, but not all, studies have reported no higher risks of birth defects in children born using ICSI procedures. However, if the father's infertility was due to genetic issues, this genetic defect may be passed on to male children conceived through ICSI.
Another concern has been whether the ICSI procedure is being overused. Some doctors recommend ICSI for women who have failed prior IVF attempts or who have few or poor-quality eggs, even if their male partners have normal semen measurements. According to the SART, there is little evidence that ICSI helps improve pregnancy success for couples who do not have a problem with male factor infertility.
Although there are no dietary or nutritional cures for infertility, a healthy lifestyle is important. Some ovulatory problems may be helped by changing behavioral patterns. Some tips include:
Planning Sexual Activity
The Fertile Window
An egg survives only 12 to 24 hours after it is released from the ovary. For conception to occur, a sperm must be able to fertilize the egg during this time. Couples can optimize their chances for conception by planning sexual intercourse during the woman's fertile window:
To determine when the fertile window occurs, women should track their menstrual cycles. They can also try methods such as charting BBT to monitor ovulation (see Diagnosis section of this report).
Frequency of Intercourse
Evidence indicates that chances are best for conception when sexual intercourse occurs every 1 to 2 days, especially during the fertile window. Less frequent sexual intercourse (2 to 3 times a week) also achieves good results. However, couples need to make their own personal choices about what amount of sexual activity is appropriate, comfortable, and desirable. Data suggests that abstinence (not having sex) of more than 5 to 10 days may adversely affect sperm health.
There is no evidence that any particular sexual positions, or resting after sex, help increase the chances for pregnancy. There is also no evidence that whether or not a woman achieves orgasm affects the likelihood of her becoming pregnant. Couples should be aware that water-based vaginal lubricants (Astroglide, K-Y Jelly, saliva) can damage sperm's ability to swim and should not be used. For lubrication, try mineral oil, canola oil, or commercially available "fertility friendly" products such as Pre-Seed, which do not harm sperm.
Dealing with Stress
The fertility treatment process presents a roller coaster of emotions. There are almost no sure ways to predict which couples will eventually conceive. Some couples with multiple problems will overcome great odds, while other, seemingly fertile, couples fail to conceive. Many of the new treatments are remarkable, but a live birth is never guaranteed. The emotional burden on the couple is considerable, and some planning is helpful. You should:
On a reassuring note, studies on infertility in women indicate that stress levels do not affect the outcome of fertility treatments. There appears to be no difference in stress levels between women who become pregnant and those who do not. Women who are feeling stressed by problems with fertility or the challenges of the fertility treatment process should not feel additionally concerned that their emotional state may affect their chances of becoming pregnant.
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Committee on Gynecologic Practice and Practice Committee. Female age-related fertility decline. Committee opinion no. 589. Fertil Steril. 2014;101(3):633-634. PMID: 24559617 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24559617.
Barbieri RL. Female infertility. In: Strauss JF, Barbieri RL. Yen & Jaffe's Reproductive Endocrinology: Physiology, Pathophysiology, and Clinical Management. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 23.
Bosteels J, Kasius J, Weyers S, Broekmans FJ, Mol BW, D'Hooghe TM. Hysteroscopy for treating subfertility associated with suspected major uterine cavity abnormalities. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;(2):CD009461. PMID: 25701429 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25701429.
Broekmans FJ, Fauser BCJM. Female infertility: evaluation and management. In: Jameson JL, De Groot LJ, de Kretser DM, et al, eds. Endocrinology: Adult and Pediatric. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 132.
Carranza-Mamane B, Havelock J, Hemmings R; REPRODUCTIVE ENDOCRINOLOGY AND INFERTILITY COMMITTEE; SPECIAL CONTRIBUTOR. The management of uterine fibroids in women with otherwise unexplained infertility. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2015;37(3):277-288. PMID: 26001875 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26001875.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. ART success rates. www.cdc.gov/art/artdata/index.html. Updated November 1, 2017. Accessed February 26, 2018.
Choi J, Lobo RA. In vitro fertilization. In: Lobo RA, Gershenson DM, Lentz GM, Valea FA, eds. Comprehensive Gynecology. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 43.
Diamond MP, Legro RS, Coutifaris C, et al. Letrozole, gonadotropin, or clomiphene for unexplained infertility. N Engl J Med. 2015;373(13):1230-1240. PMID: 26398071 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26398071.
Donnez J, Dolmans MM. Fertility preservation in women. N Engl J Med. 2017;377(17):1657-1665. PMID: 29069558 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29069558.
Gavin L, Pazol K, Ahrens K. Update: providing quality family planning services - recommendations from CDC and the US Office of Population Affairs, 2017. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017;66(50):1383-1385. PMID: 29267259 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29267259.
Giorgione V, Parazzini F, Fesslova V, et al. Congenital heart defects in IVF/ICSI pregnancy: systematic review and meta-analysis. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2018;51(1):33-42. PMID: 29164811 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29164811.
Hornstein MD. State of the ART: assisted reproductive technologies in the United States. Reprod Sci. 2016;23(12):1630-1633. PMID: 27624310 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27624310.
Kamath MS, Maheshwari A, Bhattacharya S, Lor KY, Gibreel A. Oral medications including clomiphene citrate or aromatase inhibitors with gonadotropins for controlled ovarian stimulation in women undergoing in vitro fertilisation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;11:CD008528. PMID: 29096046 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29096046.
Kyrgiou M, Mitra A, Arbyn M, et al. Fertility and early pregnancy outcomes after treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2014;349:g6192. PMID: 25352501 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25352501.
Lindsay TJ, Vitrikas KR. Evaluation and treatment of infertility. Am Fam Physician. 2015;91(5):308-314. PMID: 25822387 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25822387.
Lobo RA. Infertility: etiology, diagnostic evaluation, management, prognosis. In: Lobo RA, Gershenson DM, Lentz GM, Valea FA, eds. Comprehensive Gynecology. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 42.
Loren AW, Mangu PB, Beck LN, et al. Fertility preservation for patients with cancer: American Society of Clinical Oncology clinical practice guideline update. J Clin Oncol. 2013;31(19):2500-2510. PMID: 23715580 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23715580.
Luke B. Pregnancy and birth outcomes in couples with infertility with and without assisted reproductive technology: with an emphasis on US population-based studies. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2017;217(3):270-281. PMID: 28322775 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28322775.
Lyngsø J, Ramlau-Hansen CH, Bay B, Ingerslev HJ, Hulman A, Kesmodel US. Association between coffee or caffeine consumption and fecundity and fertility: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis. Clin Epidemiol. 2017;9:699-719. PMID: 29276412 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29276412.
Medrano JV, Andrés MDM, García S, et al. Basic and clinical Approaches for fertility preservation and restoration in cancer patients. Trends Biotechnol. 2018;36(2):199-215. PMID: 29153762 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29153762.
Nelson SM. Prevention and management of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Thromb Res. 2017;151 Suppl 1:S61-S64. PMID: 28262238 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28262238.
Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Diagnostic evaluation of the infertile female: a committee opinion. Fertil Steril. 2015;103(6):e44-e50. PMID: 25936238 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25936238.
Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Fertility drugs and cancer: a guideline. Fertil Steril. 2016;106(7):1617-1626. PMID: 27573989 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27573989.
Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine; Practice Committee of the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology. Guidance on the limits to the number of embryos to transfer: a committee opinion. Fertil Steril. 2017;107(4):901-903. PMID: 28292618 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28292618.
Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Prevention and treatment of moderate and severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome: a guideline. Fertil Steril. 2016;106(7):1634-1647. PMID: 27678032 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27678032.
Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Role of metformin for ovulation induction in infertile patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): a guideline. Fertil Steril. 2017;108(3):426-441. PMID: 28865539 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28865539.
Rebar RW, Catherino WH. Reproductive endocrinology and infertility. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 236.
Tsen LC. In vitro fertilization and other assisted reproductive technology. In: Chestnut DH, Wong CA, Tsen LC, et al, eds. Chestnut's Obstetric Anesthesia: Principles and Practice. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 15.
The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., a business unit of Ebix, Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.